At the time of the visa, you need to know exactly what your goal is with the trip. The most common visas granted by the countries are:
-Transit: Allows the passenger to transit in a certain country between the origin and the destination
-Tourism: As the name already says, is when the purpose of the trip is leisure
-Business: For those who work abroad
-Student: For those studying in the country of destination
For more information, please refer to the website of the consulate of the country you intend to visit.